A by-law relating generally to the conduct of the affairs of
St. Catharines Environmental Alliance
BE IT ENACTED as a by-law of the Corporation as follows:
In this by-law and all other by-laws of the Corporation, unless the context otherwise requires:
“Act” means the Canada Not-For-Profit Corporations Act S.C. 2009, c. 23 including the Regulations made pursuant to the Act, and any statute or regulations that may be substituted, as amended from time to time;
“articles” means the original or restated articles of incorporation or articles of amendment, amalgamation, continuance, reorganization, arrangement or revival of the Corporation;
“board” means the board of directors of the Corporation and “director” means a member of the board;
“by-law” means this by-law and any other by-law of the Corporation as amended and which are, from time to time, in force and effect;
“meeting of members” includes an annual meeting of members or a special meeting of members; “special meeting of members” includes a meeting of any class or classes of members and a special meeting of all members entitled to vote at an annual meeting of members;
“ordinary resolution” means a resolution passed by a majority of not less than 50% plus 1 of the votes cast on that resolution;
“proposal” means a proposal submitted by a member of the Corporation that meets the requirements of section 163 (Member Proposals) of the Act;
“Regulations” means the regulations made under the Act, as amended, restated or in effect from time to time; and
“special resolution” means a resolution passed by a majority of not less than two-thirds (2/3) of the votes cast on that resolution.
- Borrowing Powers
There are no borrowing privileges by any Director or member of the corporation.
- Annual Financial Statements
Financial statements will be made available prior to the AGM.
- Membership Conditions
Subject to the articles, there shall be two classes of members in the Corporation, namely, Class A members and Class B members. The board of directors of the Corporation may, by resolution, approve the admission of the members of the Corporation. Members may also be admitted in such other manner as may be prescribed by the board by resolution. The following conditions of membership shall apply via a general written application:
Class A Members
- Class A voting membership shall be available to persons who have applied and have been accepted for Class A voting membership in the Corporation.
- The term of membership of a Class A voting member shall be indefinite subject to review in accordance with the policies of the Corporation.
- As set out in the articles, each Class A voting member is entitled to receive notice of, attend and vote at all meetings of members and each such Class A voting member shall be entitled to one (1) vote at such meetings.
Class B Members
- Class B non-voting membership shall be available to persons who have applied and have been accepted for Class B non-voting membership in the Corporation.
- The term of membership of a Class B non-voting member shall be indefinite, subject to review in accordance with the policies of the Corporation.
- Subject to the Act and the articles, a Class B non-voting member shall not be entitled to receive notice of, attend or vote at meetings of the members of the Corporation.
Pursuant to subsection 197(1) (Fundamental Change) of the Act, a special resolution of the members is required to make any amendments to this section of the by-laws if those amendments affect membership rights and/or conditions described in paragraphs 197(1)(e), (h), (l) or (m).
- Transferring Membership
Memberships cannot be transferred.
Pursuant to Section 197(1) (Fundamental Change) of the Act, a special resolution of the members is required to make any amendment to add, change or delete this section of the by-laws.
- Notice of Members Meeting
Notice of the time and place of a meeting of members shall be given to each member entitled to vote at the meeting by telephonic, electronic or other communication facility to each member entitled to vote at the meeting, during a period of 21 to 35 days before the day on which the meeting is to be held. If a member requests that the notice be given by non-electronic means, the notice will be sent by mail, courier, or personal delivery.
Pursuant to subsection 197(1) (Fundamental Change) of the Act, a special resolution of the members is required to make any amendment to the by-laws of the Corporation to change the manner of giving notice to members entitled to vote at a meeting of members.
- Members Calling a Members’ Meeting
The board of directors shall call a special meeting of members in accordance with Section 167 of the Act, on written requisition of voting members carrying not less than 50% of the voting rights. If the directors do not call a meeting within twenty-one (21) days of receiving the requisition, any member who signed the requisition may call the meeting.
- Termination of Membership
A membership in the Corporation is terminated when:
- the member dies or resigns;
- the member is expelled or their membership is otherwise terminated in accordance with the articles or by-laws;
- the member’s term of membership expires; or
- the Corporation is liquidated and dissolved under the Act.
- Effect of Termination of Membership
Subject to the articles, upon any termination of membership, the rights of the member, including any rights in the property of the Corporation, automatically cease to exist.
- Discipline of Members
The board shall have authority to suspend or expel any member from the Corporation for any one or more of the following grounds: violating any provision of the articles, by-laws, or written policies of the Corporation; carrying out any conduct which may be detrimental to the Corporation as determined by the board in its sole discretion; for any other reason that the board in its sole and absolute discretion considers to be reasonable, having regard to the purpose of the Corporation.
- Proposals Nominating Directors at Annual Members’ Meetings
Subject to the Regulations under the Act, any proposal may include nominations for the election of directors subject only to members entitled to vote at the meeting at which the proposal is to be presented.
- Place of Members’ Meeting
Meetings of the members will be held online or at the Board’s direction.
- Persons Entitled to be Present at Members’ Meetings
- Members and directors are entitled to be present at a meeting of members. However, only those members entitled to vote at the members’ meeting according to the provisions of the Act, articles and by-laws are entitled to cast a vote at the meeting.
- If any director requests an in-camera meeting, it must be granted.
- Quorum at Members’ Meetings
A quorum at any meeting of the members (unless a greater number of members are required to be present by the Act) shall be a majority of the members entitled to vote at the meeting. If a quorum is present at the opening of a meeting of members, the members present may proceed with the business of the meeting even if a quorum is not present throughout the meeting.
- Voting at Members’ Meetings
- At any meeting of members every question shall, unless otherwise provided by the articles or by-laws or by the Act, be determined by consensus. However if this is not possible, a majority of the votes cast on the questions will suffice. In case of an equality of votes either on a show of hands or on a ballot or on the results of electronic voting, the chair of the meeting in addition to an original vote shall have a second or casting vote.
- Voting Members have the opportunity to request a recorded vote.
- Participation by Electronic Means at Members’ Meetings
If the Corporation chooses to make available a telephonic, electronic or other communication facility that permits all participants to communicate adequately with each other during a meeting of members, any person entitled to attend such meeting may participate in the meeting by means of such telephonic, electronic or other communication facility in the manner provided by the Act. A person participating in a meeting by such means is deemed to be present at the meeting. Notwithstanding any other provision of this by-law, any person participating in a meeting of members pursuant to this section who is entitled to vote at that meeting may vote, in accordance with the Act, by means of any telephonic, electronic or other communication facility that the Corporation has made available for that purpose.
- Members’ Meeting Held Entirely by Electronic Means
If the directors or members of the Corporation call a meeting of members pursuant to the Act, those directors or members, as the case may be, may determine that the meeting shall be held, in accordance with the Act and the Regulations, entirely by means of a telephonic, electronic or other communication facility that permits all participants to communicate adequately with each other during the meeting.
- Number of Directors
The board shall consist of the number of directors specified in the articles. If the articles provide for a minimum number of directors, the board shall be comprised of the fixed number of directors as determined from time to time by the members by ordinary resolution or, if the ordinary resolution empowers the directors to determine the number, by resolution of the board. In the case of a soliciting corporation the minimum number of directors may not be fewer than three (3), at least two of whom are not officers or employees of the Corporation or its affiliates.
- Term of Office of Directors
At the first election of Directors following the approval of this by-law, one-half (1/2) of directors shall be elected for a two-year term, one-half (1/2) of directors shall be elected for a one-year term. Thereafter, except where an election is held to fill the unexpired portion of a term, newly elected directors shall be elected for two-year (2) terms.
- Calling of Meetings of Board of Directors
Meetings of the board may be called by the chair, vice-chair, or any two (2) directors at any time; provided that for the first organization meeting following incorporation, such meeting may be called by any director or incorporator. If the Corporation has only one director, that director may call and constitute a meeting.
- Notice of Meeting of Board of Directors
Notice of the time and place for the holding of a meeting of the board shall be given in the manner provided in the section on giving notice of meeting of directors of this by-law to every director of the Corporation not less than 3 days before the time when the meeting is to be held. Notice of a meeting shall not be necessary if all of the directors are present, and none objects to the holding of the meeting, or if those absent have waived notice of or have otherwise signified their consent to the holding of such meeting. Notice of an adjourned meeting is not required if the time and place of the adjourned meeting is announced at the original meeting. Unless the by-law otherwise provides, no notice of meeting need specify the purpose or the business to be transacted at the meeting except that a notice of meeting of directors shall specify any matter referred to in subsection 138(2) (Limits on Authority) of the Act that is to be dealt with at the meeting.
- Regular Meetings of the Board of Directors
The board may appoint a day or days in any month or months for regular meetings of the board at a place and hour to be named. A copy of any resolution of the board fixing the place and time of such regular meetings of the board shall be sent to each director forthwith after being passed, but no other notice shall be required for any such regular meeting except if subsection 136(3) (Notice of Meeting) of the Act requires the purpose thereof or the business to be transacted to be specified in the notice.
- Voting at Meetings of the Board of Directors
At all meetings of the board, every question shall be decided by a majority of the votes cast on the question. In case of an equality of votes, the chair of the meeting in addition to an original vote shall have a second or casting vote.
- Committees of the Board of Directors
The board may from time to time appoint any committee or other advisory body, as it deems necessary or appropriate for such purposes and, subject to the Act, with such powers as the board shall see fit. Any such committee may formulate its own rules of procedure, subject to such regulations or directions as the board may from time to time make. Any committee member may be removed by resolution of the board of directors.
- Appointment of Officers
The board may designate the offices of the Corporation, appoint officers on an annual or more frequent basis, specify their duties and, subject to the Act, delegate to such officers the power to manage the affairs of the Corporation. A director may be appointed to any office of the Corporation. An officer may, but need not be, a director unless these by-laws otherwise provide. Two or more offices may be held by the same person.
- Officers of the Corporation
Unless otherwise specified by the board (which may, subject to the Act modify, restrict or supplement such duties and powers), the offices of the Corporation, if designated and if officers are appointed, shall have the following duties and powers associated with their positions:
- Chair of the Board – The chair of the board, if they are to be appointed, shall be a director. The chair shall, when present, preside at all meetings of the board of directors and of the members. The chair shall have such other duties and powers as the board may specify.
- Vice-Chair of the Board – The vice-chair of the board, if one is to be appointed, shall be a director. If the chair of the board is absent or is unable or refuses to act, the vice-chair of the board, if any, shall, when present, preside at all meetings of the board of directors and of the members. The vice-chair shall have such other duties and powers as the board may specify.
- President – If appointed, the president shall be the chief executive officer of the Corporation and shall be responsible for implementing the strategic plans and policies of the Corporation. The president shall, subject to the authority of the board, have general supervision of the affairs of the Corporation.
- Secretary – If appointed, the secretary shall attend and be the secretary of all meetings of the board, members and committees of the board. The secretary shall enter or cause to be entered in the Corporation’s minute book, minutes of all proceedings at such meetings; the secretary shall give, or cause to be given, as and when instructed, notices to members, directors, the public accountant and members of committees; the secretary shall be the custodian of all books, papers, records, documents and other instruments belonging to the Corporation.
- Treasurer – If appointed, the treasurer shall have such powers and duties as the board may specify.
- Omissions and Errors
The accidental omission to give any notice to any member, director, officer, member of a committee of the board or public accountant, or the non-receipt of any notice by any such person where the Corporation has provided notice in accordance with the by-laws or any error in any notice not affecting its substance shall not invalidate any action taken at any meeting to which the notice pertained or otherwise founded on such notice.
- By-laws and Effective Date
Subject to the articles, the board of directors may, by resolution, make, amend or repeal any by-laws that regulate the activities or affairs of the Corporation. Any such by-law, amendment or repeal shall be effective from the date of the resolution of directors until the next meeting of members where it may be confirmed, rejected or amended by the members by ordinary resolution. If the by-law, amendment or repeal is confirmed or confirmed as amended by the members it remains effective in the form in which it was confirmed. The by-law, amendment or repeal ceases to have effect if it is not submitted to the members at the next meeting of members or if it is rejected by the members at the meeting.
This section does not apply to a by-law that requires a special resolution of the members according to subsection 197(1) (fundamental change) of the Act because such by-law amendments or repeals are only effective when confirmed by members.